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Sunday, July 5

  1. page - Adrenergic and Adrenergic Blockers edited ... - Monitor ECG, blood pressure, cardiac output and urine output - Monitor electrolytes, some d…
    ...
    - Monitor ECG, blood pressure, cardiac output and urine output
    - Monitor electrolytes, some drugs may lower potassium levels
    - Offer food when giving adrenergic drugs, as it could nausea and vomiting
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    Sources
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    9:21 pm
  2. page - Diuretics edited ... Side effects and adverse effects It may take some time to determine the correct dose and the …
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    Side effects and adverse effects
    It may take some time to determine the correct dose and the best time of day to take the drug, depending on your age, body size, kidney function, amount of fluid buildup, and dietary sodium intake. General side effects include urinating more often while taking a diuretic. Timing of the dosage can often be adjusted so that the increased urination doesn't occur at inconvenient times. The loss of fluid also leads to increased thirst so it is important to have plenty of fluid intake while taking a diuretic. High doses of these drugs can cause dehydration or low blood pressure. Older adults may be more prone to heat exhaustion if they are taking one or more diuretics. Diuretics can also cause potassium loss, which may lead to an abnormal heartbeat. These drugs can cause changes in sugar and uric acid.
    Nursing Implications
    Weigh patient daily to monitor water loss and determine if doses of medication need to be adjusted. Take frequent blood tests to check potassium levels while patient is on a diuretic.
    If the diuretics flush too much fluid and salt from the body, they may have a kidney problem. Diuretics may interact with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Sources
    Heart Failure Society of America (2006). HFSA 2006 comprehensive heart failure practice guidelines: Executive summary. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 12(1): 10–38. Also available online: http://www.abouthf.org/guidelines.htm.
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    4:52 pm
  3. page - Diuretics edited Actions Diuretics Actions and Uses uses Diuretics stimulate ... blood vessels. Diuretics …
    ActionsDiuretics
    Actions
    and Usesuses
    Diuretics stimulate
    ...
    blood vessels. Diuretics help rid the body of extra fluid and sodium. They increase urination, decrease swelling in the legs, decrease breathlessness, and lower blood pressure. They also reduce the risk of complications caused by high blood pressure.
    Dosage often starts low and is increased as needed to reduce fluid buildup and prevent side effects. Diuretics can be taken 2 to 3 times per week, every other day, once a day, or several times daily. They are most often taken by mouth, but some can be injected into a vein if you are in the hospital.
    Side effects and adverse effects
    It may take some time to determine the correct dose and the best time of day to take the drug, depending on your age, body size, kidney function, amount of fluid buildup, and dietary sodium intake. General side effects include urinating more often while taking a diuretic. Timing of the dosage can often be adjusted so that the increased urination doesn't occur at inconvenient times. The loss of fluid also leads to increased thirst so it is important to have plenty of fluid intake while taking a diuretic. High doses of these drugs can cause dehydration or low blood pressure. Older adults may be more prone to heat exhaustion if they are taking one or more diuretics. Diuretics can also cause potassium loss, which may lead to an abnormal heartbeat. These drugs can cause changes in sugar and uric acid.
    Nursing Implications
    Weigh patient daily to monitor water loss and determine if doses of medication need to be adjusted. Take frequent blood tests to check potassium levels while patient is on a diuretic.
    If the diuretics flush too much fluid and salt from the body, they may have a kidney problem. Diuretics may interact with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Sources
    Heart Failure Society of America (2006). HFSA 2006 comprehensive heart failure practice guidelines: Executive summary. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 12(1): 10–38. Also available online: http://www.abouthf.org/guidelines.htm.

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    4:50 pm

Wednesday, July 1

  1. page - Adrenergic and Adrenergic Blockers edited ... Sources Ophardt, C (2003). Adrenergic Drugs I. Retrieved July 1, 2009, from Virtual Chembook …
    ...
    Sources
    Ophardt, C (2003). Adrenergic Drugs I. Retrieved July 1, 2009, from Virtual Chembook Web site: http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/663adrenergic.html
    Cahill, M. (Ed.). Illustrated Handbook of Nursing Care. (1998). Cardiovascular Care. (1st ed., Springhouse: Springhouse Corporation.
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    9:06 pm
  2. page - Adrenergic and Adrenergic Blockers edited ... Beta receptor activation relaxes bronchial smooth muscles which cause the bronchi of the lungs…
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    Beta receptor activation relaxes bronchial smooth muscles which cause the bronchi of the lungs to dilate.
    Beta blocking drugs are given to patients so that the heart rate and blood pressure are reduced, and the heart will pump with less intensity. This will also reduce the oxygen needs in the heart
    NurseReview.Org - Adrenergic Blockers
    View more documents from jben501.

    Side effects and adverse effects
    Low Blood Pressure
    Slow Heart Rate
    Impaired Circulation
    Loss
    Alpha blockers may have what's called a "first-dose effect." meaning when you first begin the medication you may develop low blood pressure and dizziness, which can make you suddenly faint when you rise from a sitting or lying position. Other side effects include headache, pounding heartbeat, nausea, weakness, weight gain and small decreases in LDL cholesterol the bad cholesterol. Alpha blockers can also increase or decrease the effects of Sleep
    Heart Failure
    Asthma
    Nausea
    Headaches
    Dizziness
    Muscle Cramps
    other medications you take.
    Adverse effects that are associated with the use of beta blockers include nausea, diarrhea, bradycardia, hypotension, heart failure, heart block, fatigue, dizziness, abnormal vision, decreased concentration, hallucinations, insomnia, and nightmares. Mixing alpha and beta antagonist therapy is also commonly associated with orthostatic hypotension.

    Nursing Implications
    - Use cautiously in patients that have a history of hypertension
    ...
    {clip_image001.gif}
    Sources
    Ophardt, C (2003). Adrenergic Drugs I. Retrieved July 1, 2009, from Virtual Chembook Web site: http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/663adrenergic.html

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    9:00 pm
  3. page - Adrenergic and Adrenergic Blockers edited ... Alpha blockers relax certain muscles and help small blood vessels remain open. They work by ke…
    ...
    Alpha blockers relax certain muscles and help small blood vessels remain open. They work by keeping the hormone norepinephrine from tightening the muscles in the walls of smaller arteries and veins. This improves blood flow and lowers blood pressure
    Beta receptor activation relaxes bronchial smooth muscles which cause the bronchi of the lungs to dilate.
    ...
    oxygen needs ofin the heart.heart
    NurseReview.Org - Adrenergic Blockers
    View more documents from jben501.

    Side effects and adverse effects
    Low Blood Pressure
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    8:38 pm
  4. page - Adrenergic and Adrenergic Blockers edited ... There are at least two adrenergic receptor sites (alpha or beta). Norepinephrine activates pri…
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    There are at least two adrenergic receptor sites (alpha or beta). Norepinephrine activates primarily alpha receptors and epinephrine activates mainly beta receptors.
    Alpha receptor stimulation is associated with constriction of small blood vessels in the bronchial mucosa and relaxation of smooth muscles of the intestinal tract.
    ...
    blood pressure
    Beta receptor activation relaxes bronchial smooth muscles which cause the bronchi of the lungs to dilate.
    ...
    less intensity. This, in turn,This will also reduce the
    ...
    the heart.
    Side

    Side
    effects and adverse effects
    Low Blood Pressure
    ...
    Heart Rate
    Impaired Circulation
    ...
    of Sleep
    Heart

    Heart
    Failure
    Asthma
    Nausea
    Headaches
    Dizziness

    Asthma
    Nausea
    Headaches
    Dizziness

    Muscle Cramps
    Nursing Implications
    Use

    - Use
    cautiously in
    ...
    of hypertension
    Monitor

    - Monitor
    ECG, blood
    ...
    urine output
    Monitor

    - Monitor
    electrolytes, some
    ...
    potassium levels
    {clip_image001.gif}
    Sources

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    8:30 pm
  5. 8:29 pm
  6. page - Adrenergic and Adrenergic Blockers edited Type Actions and Uses Adrenergic drugs stimulate the adrenergic nerves directly by mimicking the…
    TypeActions and Uses
    Adrenergic drugs stimulate the adrenergic nerves directly by mimicking the action of norepinephrine or indirectly by stimulating the release of norepinephrine. These drugs are used to combat life-threatening disorders, which include acute attacks of bronchial asthma, shock, cardiac arrest, and allergic reactions. In addition these drugs are used in nasal decongestants and appetite suppressants.
    There are at least two adrenergic receptor sites (alpha or beta). Norepinephrine activates primarily alpha receptors and epinephrine activates mainly beta receptors.
    Alpha receptor stimulation is associated with constriction of small blood vessels
    in the contentbronchial mucosa and relaxation of smooth muscles of the intestinal tract.
    Alpha blockers relax certain muscles and help small blood vessels remain open. They work by keeping the hormone norepinephrine from tightening the muscles in the walls of smaller arteries and veins. This improves blood flow and lowers blood pressure
    Beta receptor activation relaxes bronchial smooth muscles which cause the bronchi of the lungs to dilate.
    Beta blocking drugs are given to patients so that the heart rate and blood pressure are reduced, and the heart will pump with less intensity. This, in turn, will reduce the oxygen needs of the heart.
    Side effects and adverse effects
    Low Blood Pressure
    Slow Heart Rate
    Impaired Circulation
    Loss of Sleep
    Heart Failure
    Asthma
    Nausea
    Headaches
    Dizziness
    Muscle Cramps
    Nursing Implications
    Use cautiously in patients that have a history
    of your page here.hypertension
    Monitor ECG, blood pressure, cardiac output and urine output
    Monitor electrolytes, some drugs may lower potassium levels

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    8:22 pm
  7. page - Cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs edited Type Cholinergic drugs Actions and uses Cholinergic drugs are medications that produce the same…
    TypeCholinergic drugs
    Actions and uses
    Cholinergic drugs are medications that produce the same effects as the parasympathetic nervous system, especially imitating acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is the most common neurohormone of the parasympathetic nervous system, it is responsible for the everyday work of the body. While the sympathetic nervous system acts during times of excitation, the parasympathetic system deals with everyday activities such as salivation, digestion, and muscle relaxation.
    The cholinergic drugs may be used
    in several ways. The cholinergic muscle stimulants are used to diagnose and treat myasthenia gravis, a disease that causes severe muscle weakness. These drugs are also widely used in surgery, both to reduce the contentrisk of urinary retention, and to reverse the effects of the muscle relaxant drugs that are used in surgery. Cholinergic drugs are also used in control of glaucoma, a disease that is caused by increased pressure inside the eye. Cholinergic drugs usually act in one of two ways. Some directly mimic the effect of acetylcholine, while others block the effects of acetylcholinesterase. Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that destroys naturally occurring acetylcholine. By blocking the enzyme, the naturally occurring acetylcholine has a longer action. This inhibition permits the buildup of acetylcholine and results in more intensive and prolonged activation of the receptor site. The effects of cholinergic stimulation include: vasodilatation of blood vessels; slower heart rate; constriction of bronchioles and increased secretion of mucus in the respiratory tract; intestinal cramps; secretion of salvia; sweat and tears; and constriction of eye pupils.
    Side effects and adverse effects
    When used properly, cholinergic drugs will increase muscle strength in patients with myasthenia gravis. In eye drop form, they can reduce the intraocular pressure in glaucoma. The possible adverse effects of cholinergic drugs are slow heart beat, possibly leading to cardiac arrest, muscle weakness, muscle cramps, and muscle pain, convulsions, weak breathing, inability to breath, increased stomach acid and saliva, nausea and vomiting.
    Nursing Implications
    Cholinergic drugs should be avoided when the patient has any sort of blockage in the urinary or digestive tracts, such a tumor, or severe inflammation. They should be used with caution in patients with asthma, epilepsy, slow heart beat, hyperthyroidism, or gastric ulcers. The effects of the cholinergic drugs are to produce the same effects as stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system. These effects include slowing of the heartbeat, increases in normal secretions including the digestive acids of the stomach, saliva and tears. For this reason, patients who already have a problem in one of these areas, such as a slow heartbeat or stomach ulcers, should use these drugs with great caution, since the medication will make their conditions worse.
    Anticholinergic Drugs
    Actions and uses
    Anticholinergics are a class of medications that restrain parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding sites of acetylcholine to its receptor in nerve cells. The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movements of smooth muscles present in the body.
    Anticholinergics are divided into three categories in accordance with their specific targets in the central and/or peripheral nervous system: antimuscarinic agents, ganglionic blockers, and neuromuscular blockers.
    Side effects and Adverse effects
    Antimuscarinic agent side effects are delirium, hallucinations, coma, circulatory and respiratory collapse, rapid heart rate, dilation of pupils and blurred vision, restlessness, burning pain in the throat, marked mouth dryness, and urinary retention.
    Side effects of ganglionic blockers include paralysis of gastrointestinal movements, nausea, gastritis, urinary retention, and blurred vision.
    Neuromuscular blockers effects may include failure in breathing due to paralysis of the diaphragm, low blood pressure, tachycardia, post-surgery muscle pain, &lid=ALINK high fever.
    Nursing Implications
    Monitor patients vital signs and urine output carefully. Tell patients to only take drug as prescribed, and advise them not to drive until they know the sides effects the drug can give them. Patient should drink plenty of fluids to prevent constipation, and to report rash or skin irritation.
    Sources
    Ophardt, C (2003). Cholinergic Drugs I. Retrieved July 1, 2009, from Virtual Chembook Web site: http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/662cholinergic.html
    Cholinergic Drugs. (n.d.) Gale Encyclopedia
    of your page here.Medicine. (2008). Retrieved July 1 2009 from http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Cholinergic+Drugs

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    7:59 pm

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